Can we define a couple of technology-companies as a large tooth? Probably not, but still the acronym FANG was introduced to group Facebook, Amazon, Netflix and Google. When Apple was added (remarkable as this is a real hardware-centered company – the others being service providers and platforms from the start) it became FAANG. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/f/faang-stocks.asp

The question is, do these companies have something in common from a financial perspective? Let’s use AnRep3D to find out!

Now that we have a legend, it is easy to pick the most interesting values for the dimensions of the graph. Total Revenue and Net profit or loss, are still interesting so let’s take those. Then Equity, as always but this time Liabilities (rather than Total Assets often used in this blog) would be interesting. Of course it makes only sense if we don’t take a single snapshot in time. AnRep3D allows us to compare the companies over a couple of years. The most recent five available will do: 2013 – 2017.

I must admit that I’ve been a little bit lazy: if a series of years was available in the most recent Annual Report (e.g. Revenue and Net Profit for 2013 – 2017), I didn’t bother to look into the other ones, except for a quick check. The websites used to obtain the annual reports were: http://www.annualreports.com/Company/facebook 




https://abc.xyz/investor/ and https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1288776/000128877614000020/goog2013123110-k.htm

Let’s start with a screenshot from the resulting graph first. Again, it’s clickable, although this time clicking doesn’t lead to the real 3D graph but will show a short movie (at our Youtube-channel) of the moving 3D-graph. Of course the real graph is also available. As it actually is an html-page it will be shown in your browser.

Front view FAANG 3D graph

(As always there are several options to move graph: clicking the right mouse-button, moving the mouse up and down will zoom the graph in and out. Clicking left and moving the mouse will tilt the graph in different directions (or move the observer’s viewpoint around a fixed graph – it’s relative of course). Double clicking in the graph translates it and moves the centre at the same time. As a result the way the graph tilts will change. Just try it. If you don’t know how to get the normal position back, just refresh the graph.)

Some information about the process: After collecting all the necessary values, the parameter-line was set. Of course it mentionted the five companies and five years. After the 5,5 the stretch-factor was put to 5000 and the additional space to 20%. Probably 0 would have done as well. Then the font-size was put at 5 and because we wanted the legend to show labels, the three pieces of text were added after the font-size. So the full parameterline was like this:

5; 5; 5000; 20; 5; Revenue (Net Prof.); Equity; Total Liabilities

The values for each company in a single year were put in separate lines and this means we had 25 data-lines. Here they are (all values in millions of USD):

Google (Alph.);2017;110855;12662;152502;34793;;
Google (Alph.);2016;90272;19478;139036;28461;;
Google (Alph.);2015;74989;16348;120331;27130;;
Google (Alph.);2014;66001;14136;103860;25327;;
Google (Alph.);2013;55519;12733;86977;22073;;

The order is as in FAANG. Because the values were entered in an Excel-sheet and saved as an “MS-DOS csv” the separators are semi-colons. No decimal points were used in this case. The extra semi-colons at the end of each line are meaningless. How does the graph look? Well, you probably watched the video or looked at the real graph shown in your browser, but the a screenshot is shown again, because now we will discuss it:

Front view FAANG 3D graph

A couple of things are remarkable. Firstly, Apple is a real giant for several reasons. It has the highest revenue, highest profit and the second highest equity (after Alphabet / Google). Netflix is the opposite as it seems a dwarf. Why? Simply because its revenue, profit and equity are the smallest for the group and although Facebook’s revenue is not as impressive as Apple or Amazon either, its profit is much higher than Netflix’s for all the years. Let’s have a look from above in the next screenshot.

Top-front view of 3D graph FAANG

Now we can see the difference between Amazon and Alphabet/Google. The former has a really small profit (thin green roof) in comparison with the revenue, so the margin is quite low for Amazon and for those who are not colour-blind: the red roof means there was a loss in 2014! Alphabet/Google on the other hand, has rather thick green roofs, although Apple is invincible in absolute terms. If we look at the ratio of the green roof to the total height (the margin), then Facebook is even more impressive in 2017.

Another striking difference between Amazon and Alphabet/Google is the ratio of equity (width of the building) and total liabilities (depth of the building). Amazon has a rather normal gearing with the liabilities being about four times the equity being about, but for Alphabet/Google it’s the other way round! It has hardly any debt at all (well, that’s an exaggeration, but still). Facebook looks more like Alphabet/Google than like Amazon, on comparing their gearing.

Remember that 2017 is in the front and see how the revenue for Amazon and Alphabet/Google grew over the years. It’s not the perspective of the graph that makes the building of the older years look smaller. Their revenue – and equity – was really lower at the beginning as we can see from aside.

Right-side view of 3D graph FAANG

The huge buildings in the background are Apple – covering Facebook completely and Netflix is hardly visible anyway. Amazon’s equity grew, but the liabilities too. For Alphabet/Google, the liabilities remained as small as they were in 2013. Flipping the graph to the other side, we can see Facebook.

Left-side view of 3D-graph FAANG

Again, Apple is a big wall in the background, but now we can see Facebook showed in impressive growth for revenue, profit, equity and liabilities.

That’s it for now. I hope the FAANG-visualisation provides a better understanding about the differences and similarities (from a financial point of view of course) of the companies behind the acronym. The screenshots and comments are nothing more than suggestions. Please try and discover yourself by looking at the real 3D-graph as a screenshot is only a poor extract of the so much richer original.

A free demo is available. It is fully functional, but will only process one data-line and therefore only one building will be in the graph. It can be used to get acquainted with the generator before purchasing a full licence.

Of course we are happy to provide licences for the full version of the generator. It’s quite affordable as it is still a one-off payment for companies that are willing to become an early partner (EUR 450 ex VAT for 2017). Contact us at info@anrep3d.com  or have a look at our company’s website first.

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Alternative usage of the AnRep3D-generator – Part II

Last week I did not finish the story, to prevent an overload of information. However, both graphs were available (by clicking the different screenshots), so it was possible to investigate them oneself. Now it is time for some guidance for readers who prefer to read a story, rather than manipulating the graphs themselves.

Although the screenshots will be clickable again, first the links for the two graphs (country totals for the energy-mix and the values for the same countries per capita) are presented: http://graphs.anrep3d.com/Energy_1995-2015_all.htm and http://graphs.anrep3d.com/Energy_1995-2015_pc.htm

The first picture is a combination of two screenshots from the same graph. In the top-half we see the Germany “building” for 1995 (within the red circle). The width represents the part of nuclear energy (absolute value in PJ) and the height is the amount of renewables (the green part being the bio-energy component).

Combined screenshots Germany

The bottom half of the picture shows Germany again, but now for 2015 (again in a red circle). This time the building is much narrower, indicating an enormous reduction of the nuclear energy. It’s the impact of the “Energiewende”. At the same time, the building is much higher than in 1995 because of the increase of renewable energy. The green roof is really thick so the majority of those renewables are still biofuels and not wind or solar (found in the yellow part underneath).

If we turn the graph to see the side of the 2015 buildings, it becomes clear that most of the energy-consumption in Germany is still fossil-based. Only for France, showing more or less a square building, fossil and nuclear are about the same. See screenshot below.

RenewablesA better way to compare all countries in the graph – when looking at the usage of fossil energy – is to take the top-view.  In the real 3D-graph the names of the countries are in front of the lanes and easily checked, but because this is only a fixed screenshot the names were put in manually.

Fossil Nuclear Top

This top-view shows us that the fossil consumption of Germany and the UK is higher than for France and for Italy it is really small (we already know Italy doesn’t have any nuclear energy of itself at all). At the same time we know that France uses about twice the amount of nuclear energy of Germany and the UK taken together. That’s why France has very low carbon-emissions!

The – absolute – amount of nuclear energy consumed by France is more than a half the nuclear consumption of the USA, although the latter has a much larger population! The shape of the USA-building resembles the shape of the one for Germany because the ratio of fossil to nuclear is very similar (in spite of the “Energiewende”). The People’s Republic of China consumes more ore less the same amount of fossil fuels as the USA (in 2010 it was less, but in 2015 it was already about 30% more than the USA), but its population is at least three times as large. And India, with a population that is also over one billion, still consumes less than half of the USA-amount of fossils. It’s time to switch to the “per capita” graphs, showing us the average consumption of an individual in every country. This won’t change the shape of the buildings as the mix of fossil, nuclear and renewables will remain the same, but the relative sizes of the buildings will be different after all!

The first screenshot of the “per capita” version shows the legend clearly at the front of the graph. The values are the same as the previous ones for the countries, but divided by their population for the year of consumption. Suddenly the USA is not very different from Germany or the UK, but both China and India are hardly visible any more. They have a very large number of inhabitants, but the energy-consumption of the average individual is much lower than in Europe or the USA.Energy per capita with Legend

An oblique top-view illustrates even more clearly that the average inhabitant of France consumes more nuclear energy than the average American from the USA. And although France was good at renewable energy in 1995, the USA was doing better!Energy per capita 2

Moving from the side to the front, we can see in 2015 individuals in Italy and Germany are on top when it comes to renewable energy and for Italy it’s even about 50% of non-bio&waste (yellow part of the height – e.g. hydro, wind, solar). In this graph the most interesting part is not the comparison between countries, but the change in the mix over the years!

Energy per capita top front

Well, that’s all for the alternative application of the AnRep3D-generator. Try the graphs yourself by double-clicking the screenshot. The real 3D-graph will appear in your browser (if JavaScript and WebGL are enabled).

(To manipulate the graph there are several options: clicking the right mouse-button, moving the mouse up and down will zoom the graph in and out. Clicking left and moving the mouse will tilt the graph in different directions (or move the observer’s viewpoint around a fixed graph – it’s relative of course). Double clicking in the graph translates it and moves the centre at the same time. As a result the way the graph tilts will change. Just try it. If you don’t know how to get the normal position back, just refresh the graph.)

Please contact us at info@anrep3d.com or have a look at our website https://anrep3d.com and download the free demo-package (no signing in required yet).

We would really like to have more partnerships with Universities (including Universities of Applied Sciences) to let students explore the possibilities of the generator and come up with new applications we didn’t think off ourselves. We are convinced that the addition of a (meaningful) third dimension in visualisation adds a lot of value, because the human eye is a powerful instrument when it comes to pattern-recognition!

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Alternative usage of the AnRep3D-generator

A couple of months ago, I demonstrated the visualisation of the energy-mix of different countries and called it “abuse of AnRep3D”. Of course this wasn’t meant seriously, as every set of data can be visualised using AnRep3D. The name is derived from “Annual Report in 3D” as the original idea was related to financial information. However, there are no real boundaries to the data to be fed to the generator as it is completely agnostic.

Now, with the new version 4.1 available, offering a 3D legend as a part of the graph, it’s even easier to visualise alternative data-sets as the graph itself will tell what’s in it. To demonstrate the possibilities I decided to write this post about the energy-mix of different countries again. Only this time it’s called “alternative usage” and the graph will show a 3D-legend.  Actually I created two different graphs. Their legends are bots shown right below. Let me explain them afterwards. Double-clicking will present the real 3D-graph in your browser if JavaScript and WebGL are enabled.

(Remember:  To manipulate the graph there are several option. clicking the right mouse-button, moving the mouse up and down will zoom the graph in and out. Clicking left and moving the mouse will tilt the graph in different directions (or move the observer’s viewpoint around a fixed graph – it’s relative of course). Double clicking in the graph translates it and moves the centre at the same time. As a result the way the graph tilts will change. Just try it. If you don’t know how to get the normal position back, just refresh the graph.)

Energy countries GJ per capitaLegend countries PJ

When it comes to energy-usage and its diferent sources, the International Energy Agency offers a wealth of data. Their site was renewed recently and I was able to have a look at the energy-mix of different countries. I decided to work with the TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply) as it reflects the real mix of fuels. The consumption includes large amounts of “electricity” and heat, being secundary sources or carriers (the same applies to e.g. Hydrogen).

Within Europe, the UK, Germany, France and Italy are important industrialised countries. Outside Europe we cannot ignore the USA, thePeople’s Republic of China and India. The latter three are large countries and of course this would mean a higher energy-consumption. The populations of China and India are over one billion each, but both are also “emerging”. To adjust the energy consumption to the number of inhabitants, I divided the total for the country by the size of the population.

The really interesting part is the ratio of fossil and nuclear energy and the share of “renewables”. We know that the height of the AnRep3D-buildings offers the possibility of a subsection (for financial purposes it’s the profit as a part of the revenue) but here we were allowed to split the renewables in the safe ones (solar, hydro, wind and geothermal energy) and the more dubious set called “biofuels and waste”. Cutting trees and selling them as wood-pellets is called “bio-fuel” and the same applies to ethanol and biodiesel, which can be derived from sources also suitable as food, like palm-oil. Although the second generation of biofuels causes less damage to the environment and society, it is good to visualise them separately. In previous posts I emphasised coal and of course we could have used the height for fossil, with the coal-section being represented by the green roof. We do have a 3D-legend, so probably it’s a good alternative for an upcoming post.

To show the change over time – with the most recent data available for 2015, I took the years 1995, 2005 and 2015. The resulting graphs present seven countries at three years (spanning two decades) with a “per capita” version in GJ (GigaJoule) and an a version at the country-level in PJ (PetaJoule, being one million GigaJoule). As the graph provides a relative comparison the shape of a single building (a country in one year) won’t change, but the relative size of the buildings will be different.

Everything was prepared in Excel and then the result was saved as a .csv-file. Because of this terrible Dutch tradition to use commas as a decimal separator automatically (providing a very weird graph!), I had to replace them all by decimal points using control-H. Fortunately in the .csv the real separator was a semicolon, so no confusion there.

The graphs are extremely rich in information. Screenshots can only represent one particular view, but it can be inspiring to do so. That’s why below a series of them are shown. Each one can be double-clicked to get the full graph presented in your web-browser. Several other screenshots – mainly from the “per capita” graph –  will be discussed in the next post. Right now I will focus on a very peculiar phenomenon: a building with a length, a height but no width at all!

The first screenshot is actually a combination of two. The width of the building represents nuclear energy and we can see France is quite good at it! Germany, despite of all the news about becoming free of nuclear energy, is reducing the amount but is certainly not yet zero! On the other hand Italy, more known for other things, is completely free of active nuclear power stations. As a result we can see the height (renewable energy) and the depth (fossil) of the building (right part of the picture), but there is no width at all (left part).

Italy Nuclear

When we look from the top, there is a building in the oblique view but looking perpendicular to the floor, Italy becomes completely invisible.

Nuclear Italy top

That’s it for now. Of course you are invited to inspect the graphs yourself, using the instructions in the small print above. Please contact us at info@anrep3d.com  or have a look at our website https://anrep3d.com and download the free demo-package (no signing in required yet).

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The legend: a small step for mankind, but a giant leap for AnRep3D

No, this post is not about AnRep3D becoming a legendary company. It’s about the legend we added to the 3D-graphs. Usually graphs and maps have legends. Yet AnRep3D didn’t have one, until now. Originally the idea was that a fixed set of values would be visualised in the 3D-graph (Revenue, Profit, Equity, Total Assets). Creating examples for this blog, alternatives came up like EBITDA instead of profit – or Liabilities instead of Assets or Equity. This works well, but who will know what the graph is about without a legend?

In the previous post I showed the plans, presenting a screenshot from a manipulated output-file (a 3D graph). Now, not long after we proudly present version 4.1 of the AnRep3D generator! The new generator shows a 3D legend in front of the graph, but a little lower than the ground-level of the “buildings”. This position was chosen carefully. The legend doesn’t distract or block the view at the graph, but at the same time it won’t be missed because the top is visible from the start. The legend created by the generator is slightly different from the “hacked graph” we showed in the previous post. After several trials it became clear that only three labels are needed for the height, width and depth. Of course a part of the height is presented in a different colour (green, red). The best way to clarify is not a separate label, but an addition in the label for height – something like: revenue(profit) or sales/EBITDA or even Renewables[Biofuel]. The latter refers to the series we wrote about the 3D visualisation of the energy-mix in different countries in time.

Talking about labels, the question is where the generator will get them from. To keep the structure of the input-file unchanged (well, almost), the labels were added to the parameter-line – the first line in the input-file. Labels for height, width and depth will be added after the font-size. Of course those labels also have to be separated by commas or semicolons. To make things very clear, one of the well-know graphs already presented on this site, will be repeated here. It’s the graph showing values from the annual reports of GlaxoSmithKline and AstraZeneca for 2014, 2015 and 2016. The difference with the previous version is the legend. Unlike with the “hacked graph” the screenshot can be clicked again, to open thGSK AstraZeneca with legende real 3D graph in the browser.










To manipulate the graph: Clicking the right mouse-button and moving the mouse up and down will zoom the graph in and out. Clicking left and moving the mouse will tilt the graph in different directions (or move the observer’s viewpoint around a fixed graph – it’s relative of course). Double clicking in the graph translates it and moves the centre at the same time. As a result the way the graph tilts will change. Just try it. If you don’t know how to get the normal position back, just refresh the graph.

From now on the free demo-package will be derived from version 4.1 of the generator and create a legend in the graph. The manual has been updated of course and the same applies to the input- and output-files to be found in the package. Additional videos for version 4.1 will be added to the AnRep3D’s Youtube-channel soon, explaining the new parameter-line and the graph itself. Visit our website AnRep3D.com for more information about us and our product.

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Adding a legend to the 3D graphs

When talking about data in the inputfile for AnRep3D, the series to be visualised is usually abbreviated as RPEA: Revenue, Profit, Equity and (Total) Assets. Yet, on several occasions I emphasised the possibility to choose alternative values. In previous posts examples were given with e.g Gross Profit or EBITDA instead of just Profit and some time ago we even presented the energy mix of different countries in time. E.g: Abusing the AnRep3D-generator visualising energy sources II

The resulting graphs are interesting and there is no reason whatsoever to avoid alternative applications, but at the same time I was worried about the documentation. Of course a graph can be distributed with comments, explaining what is shown. At the same time however, those comments are not connected to the graph and therefore the graph itself does not explain which kind of input was used.

This could be solved by a legend in the graph, but for a 3D graph a flat list is not an option. It should point to the right directions. After several months, the absence of such a legend began to annoy me. Remember, I use my own generator and therefore I am not only a supplier, but also a customer, providing me with feedback as much as others do.

Last week I finally decided to experiment with the output-file. I’m not a programmer, but will be able to add functionality to the generator. Before doing so, I had to find out the best options and this was done by manipulating an output file directly. As explained before, the output-file is basically embedded X3D (the successor of VRML – Virtual Reality Modeling (Markup) Language) and I know how to deal with it.

After some experiments I was able to create a nice version with a 3D legend in it. Although the generator still has to be adjusted, an example of an upcoming graph-type is shown below.

Legend in GSK AZ 3D-graph

The legend is not really part of the graph, but hovers at a lower plane, in the front. At the same time a part of the legend is visible. Would it be out of scope, a lot of people wouldn’t notice it. So I chose to put it in a place where a part is visible from the start.

Legend in GSK AZ 3D graph oblique

Legend GSK AZ full


During the next couple of weeks I will be working on a new version of the AnRep3D generator, putting a 3D legend in the graph automatically. The three axes and the “roof” will need their own text, which means that the parameter-line will be extended. It also means a new manual, a new demo-package and e.g. new videos. A lot of work and of course it would be nice to get some feedback. Visit our website (anrep3d.com)  for more information or contact us for e.g. a license at (info@anrep3d.com).

Do you want to generate a 3D-graph yourself?  Use our free demo. It is a fully functional generator, only limited to the creation of graphs for one company and one year. Of course there is no legend in it yet. When the new demo is available, I will write another post about the subject.

As explained before: double-click an image to view the 3D-graph in your browser. Double clicking this graph will change the viewpoint. Left-click, hold and drag to tilt or rotate. Right-click, hold and move to zoom the 3D-graph.
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A very technical post

Why a technical post? Well, to be honest because I realised how much we depend on a cloud-service. Let me explain how this happened and then provide a solution.

In the past, the AnRep3D-generator created graphs in the independent language VRML, used for 3D models. VRML is a formally obsolete language, able to present 2D and 3D models. I wrote “formally” because it has a successor called X3D. Yet VRML is still around and X3D as a pure language never became very well known let alone broadly accepted. Since AnRep3D-graphs are 3D models choosing VRML made sense in 2006, but there was also a disadvantage which became more important over the years. VRML can only be read by specific viewers or in a web-browser if a plug-in is installed. The number of viewers available over the year declined and on top of this, a kind of crusade against browser plug-ins started. People neither wanted to install a plug-in, nor did they download a viewer. In the end this meant nobody was looking at the AnRep3D-graphs (and VRBI for that matter). Switching to X3D wouldn’t have solved the issue as it needs a viewer as well and hardly any browser plug-ins are available.

In 2016 we knew we had to work on an alternative, to keep AnRep3D alive. To be able to show 3D models in a browser, HTML5 is the best standard now. Yet HTML5 heavily relies on JavaScript. I don’t like JavaScript at all, but it’s more or less the standard in dynamic webpages and it looked like we had no choice.

Luckily, Germany has always been very active in Virtual Reality and related subjects like VRML. Of course, the research-groups there encountered the same problems as AnRep3D did and the Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics Research (IGD) created a very smart solution. It offers a cloud-service called X3DOM, able to convert a file with an X3D-like content into a Javascript programme in realtime. This means when our “3D-graphs” (actually an .htm-file with a lot of X3D-code in it) are being viewed, in the background the X3DOM cloudservice is called to translate the code upfront.

When you look at the output-file of the AnRep3D-generator (use our free demo package to create one or simply pick an example availabe in this demo-package) you will see something like this:

AB Inbev SAB Miller AnRep3D output file

The second part within the blue box is the actual graph, more or less in X3D. With some alterations it would be possible to generate pure X3D, to be read by a viewer. The first part however, surrounded by a red line, calls for a translation and as the file already is in the html-format, the translated result can be understood by the browser.

This works so well that I never thought about it, until last May (2018). The X3DOM cloud-service was down during a couple of days for the first time ever and as a result the AnRep3D-graphs didn’t work! I was shocked, especially because I never realised I was using a cloud-service translating the AnRep3D code in real-time! After the weekend https://x3dom.org  was up and running again, but I started to think about the options. It was then that I decided to write this post, to warn for the dependency.

It turned out the converted code can be saved locally to become independent from the cloud-service, but to be honest: I never did until last week. By right-clicking outside the blue part of the page, the source can be downloaded. I saved the example shown abobe. The result looks a little bit different from the original.

AB Inbev SAB Miller AnRep3D X3DOM output file

Apart from this, a folder has been added: AB-Inbev-SAB-Miller_files holding two files: x3dom.css and x3dom.js  The former is a cascading style sheet and the latter holds JavaScript-code. File and folder (with two additional files) together provide the local graph, No need for a connection to the Internet and X3DOM.org. The only difference I noticed is the page being larger. At first, only a blue background was visible, but scrolling down the graph is still there.

Of course we will work on the improvement of the generator and listen to our clients (companies holding a licence for the full generator, that is) to determine our roadmap.

Then a short note on JavaScript:

Despite “Java” being in the name, it has nothing to do with the Java programming language. It’s an example of “mimicry” used as a marketing strategy.

The AnRep3D-generator was written in Java, but any other language would have done. All one needs is the programme – never mind how it was created. The only issue is, the Java-package should be available on your device to be able to run it. Java is available for free at a separate Oracle-website: https://java.com/en/download/ Languages used by Microsoft are preinstalled in Windows, but Java is not.

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Introductory videos, explaining the AnRep3D graphs

Currently we have a lot of posts discussing all kinds of examples of AnRep3D graphs. Most of them hold links to real 3D-graphs, to be shown in the browser. Yet it would be good to have a little more guidance about the structure and meaning of the graphs. That’s why we prepared a couple of introductory videos, explaining the principle of these 3D graphs.

The videos will be found on Youtube, in the AnRep3D channel, but the links are also presented below.

After the introduction we will present some other videos, showing the structure of the input-file, the use of the generator and the “interior” of an AnRep3D graph file.

For more information visit our website: https://AnRep3D.com where the free demo-package can be found as well.

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