Energy-consumption in four large European countries

Normally these posts start with an intro on the subject and at the end I provide some information about our product and company. This time I will do it the other way round:

For information about the generator of 3D-graphs, please have a look at website and download  the free 3D-graph generator package (zip). It  should be unpacked in a folder and the .jar file (the 3D-graph generator) can be started immediately. For a better understanding of the generator we have a couple of short movies at our youtube-channel. Our email-address is and you can follow us on Twitter: @AnRep3D


Photo by geralt on Pixabay

Now it’s time for this fortnight’s subject: the energy-consumption in Germany, United Kingdom, France and Italy. A long time ago a 3D-graph holding these countries was presented, but this time we take a different approach for the dimensions of the buildings. The sourse data are from the IEA with information about the population from sources like Wikipedia and Worldometers. The population is relevant because this time only the “per capita” consumption will be presented.


Previously all of the EU28 was compared to other countries. This time we take a couple of EU28 member-states.At this moment the United Kingdom is still a part of the EU28.

Photo by stux on Pixabay

Again the jumps in time are rather large, to have really impressive changes visible in the graph. Of course more subtle differences can be observed in a 3D-graph, but it’s less fun to write about. Dimensions defined in the graph (all presented as units of energy, like ktoe (kilotonne of oil equivalent) or PJ (PetaJoule) are this time:

  • Height: non-fossil sources (like nuclear, hydro, geothermal, solar wind and biological
  • Width: coal and oil combined
  • Depth: natural gas

The yellow part of the height represents sources without direct CO2 emissions (nuclear, hydro, geothermal, solar and wind) and the green part – although non fossil – is the section which is a part of the CO2 cycle and therefore more disputed than the regular renewables like solar and wind. The reason why natural gas is presented separately from coal and oil is because coal & oil are seen as the “old economy” now. Natural gas is fossil as well, but more of a transition source. Its related CO2-emissions per unit of energy are lower, but certainly not negligible.  Be aware that natural gas includes LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas). Apart from this, all four countries will have values in every dimension.

As always, the screenshot of the 3D-graph show below can be double clicked, to open the graph in a web-browser. The instructions about how to zoom, translate, rotate and tilt the the graph are given in small print below. Remember that all values are “per capita”!

3D-graph about energy consumption

Clicking the right mouse-button, moving the mouse up and down will zoom the graph in and out. Clicking left and moving the mouse will tilt the graph in different directions (or move the observer’s viewpoint around a fixed graph – it’s relative of course). Double clicking in the graph translates it and moves the centre at the same time. As a result the way the graph tilts will change. Just try it. If you don’t know how to get the normal position back, just refresh the graph.

What is remarkable in this 3D-graph? Although the total energy-consumption per inhabitant (GJ per captita: sum of height, width and depth) is not extremely different (in 2015 Italy’s comsumption was about 2/3rd of Germany’s), France has a very different shape, because the non-fossil part (height) is 2.5 – 4.5 times higher than for the other countries. The green part is not very different, but the yellow part is (4 – 8.5 times higher) – mainly because France has a lot of nuclear energy.Germany is still heavily relying on coal and oil, although the consumption went down in twenty years. The UK however, did much better. Then other differences are also interesting. E.g. all countries using less energy from coal and oil in 2015, compared to 1995. Of course the crisis helped to reduce the energy consumption. This explains why natural gas also went down. Otherwise a shift towards this source would have been more likely. Between 1995 and 2015 the green part (bio-fuel and waste) increased for all four countries. It would be interesting to investigate what the composition of this section is. The usage of potential food should be avoided and the same applies to the usage of agricultural land for biofuels instead of food. On the other hand, collecting waste from garbage can be useful as long as the recycling of valuable materials – including plastics – are at a high level. Toxic exhausts should also be avoided. Although this can all be visualised in a 3D-graph, we leave it like this for now. In the end the purpose of this blog is to show the power of the AnRep3D- (or is it EnRep3D-?) generator.

biological waste

Photo by Ben_Kerckx on Pixabay

About AnRep3D

AnRep3D is the new company, founded after the handover of Scientassist (together with VRBI) to one of my sons. From now I will focus on three-dimensional graphs for the financial markets, showing the main figures from annual reports in comparison. As per 2021 a second product is available: EnRep3D. It is meant to visualise energy. Although the engine is the same, the texts, manual, website and examples (including blogposts) are focused at energy.
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